Neolithic period (8200-3900 BC)
Scientists have found that the very first people appeared on the island in the early Neolithic. Remains from the oldest settlements in Cyprus date from this period. They can best be seen in Khirokitia, just off the Nicosia to Limassol highway. At first, only stone vessels were used. Pottery appeared during the second phase after 5000 BC.
Chalcolithic Age (3900-2500 BC)
Transitional period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. Copper was beginning to be discovered and exploited on a small scale.
Bronze Age (2500-1050 BC)
Cyprus is rich in copper. Cooper was more extensively exploited bringing wealth to Cyprus, therefore people mastered the secret of making products from metal. The island become the main trading centre of the Mediterranean. Myceneans from Greece first came to the island as merchants after 1400 BC. Around 1200 BC, mass waves of Achaean Greeks came to settle on the island spreading the Greek language, religion and customs.
Geometric Period (1050-750 BC)
Cyprus became Greek island with ten city-kingdoms. The cult of the goddess Aphrodite started on the island. The 9th century BC, Phoenicians settled at Kition. It was a period of great prosperity in the 8th century.
Archaic and Classical Period (750-310 BC)
The island fell prey to several conquerors (Assyria, Egypt and Persia).King Evagoras of Salamis (411-374 BC) made the island one of the leading political and cultural centres of the Greek world.
The island became part of Alexander the Great’s empire.
Hellenistic Period (310-30 BC)
Cyprus came under the Hellenistic state of the Ptolemais of Egypt, after rivalries between Alexander’s generals. Ptolemais abolished the city-kingdoms and united Cyprus. Then Pafos became the capital.
Roman Period (30 BC-330AD)
The great Rome has become a new Mediterranean power. Cyprus came under the domination of the Roman Empire. The island with enormous natural resources, fertile land and rich landscapes became a Roman province. The Apostles Paul and Barnabas brought Christianity to Cyprus. The island became the first country in the world where the rules of the baptized Christian was accepted. Afterwards Cyprus was conquered by Byzantium.
Byzantine Period (330-1191)
Cyprus came under Byzantium. Christianity became the official religion. In 488 Emperor gave the Church of Cyprus full autonomy and special privileges.
In 647 Arabs invaded the island. For three centuries Cyprus had been constantly under attack by Arabs.
Richard the Lionheart (1191-1192)
The island was conquered in 1191 by King Richard I of England during the Third Crusade. A year later he sold the island to the knights Templar, who resold it to guy lusignan, deposed King of Jerusalem.
Lusignan (Frankish) Period (1192-1489)
Cyprus was ruled on the feudal system and the Catholic Church officially replaced the Greek Orthodox, which though managed to survive. The Frankish period was severe and despotic. The Lusignan dynasty ended when the last Queen Caterina Cornaro conceded Cyprus to Venice.
Venetian Period (1489-1571)
The Venetians fortified the island, they viewed the Cyprus as a last fortress against the Ottomans. Ottoman Occupation (1571-1878)
In 1570 Ottoman troops attacked and captured Cyprus. The Ottoman Empire ruled Cyprus until 1878.As the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, their rule became brutal and corrupt.
British Rule (1878-1960)
The Ottoman Turks handed over the administration of the island to Britain, in exchange for guaranties that Britain would protect the Ottoman Empire against possible Russian aggression. From beginning of British ruling Cypriots became to dream about union with Greece. The national liberation struggle was launched in 1955 against colonial British rule and union with Greece. The struggle ended in 1959 with the Zurich-signed by Britain, Greece and Turkey.
Republic of Cyprus
In August 16, 1960 Cyprus got sovereignty and became independent Republic, but such independence had its flaws. The outdated Constitution pushed the Turkish-Cypriot and Greek-Cypriot communities against each other. During the coup in Cyprus, the Turks captured approximately 30% of the territory of the island. As a result of the really tragic and very bloody events of 1974, the island was divided in two parts. The “green line” was created and became a symbol of separation of the country and the people. Since then the politicians are trying to resolve the problem in peaceful way, but reaching political equilibrium seemed impossible till now.
Neolithic period (8200-3900 BC)